Technology powers nearly every aspect of today’s businesses, from an individual employee’s work to  operations to goods and services. When properly networked, technology can be optimized to improve  communication, create efficiencies and increase productivity. 

If an IT infrastructure is flexible, reliable and secure, it can help an organization meet its goals and  provide a competitive edge in the market or unique benefit to the community. Alternatively, if an IT  infrastructure isn’t properly implemented, businesses can face connectivity, productivity and security  issues—like system disruptions and breaches. Overall, having a properly implemented infrastructure can  be a factor in whether a business is profitable or not. 

With an IT infrastructure, a company can: 

  • Provide a positive customer experience by providing uninterrupted access to its resources and  staff. 

  • Develop and launch solutions to market with speed. 

  • Collect data in real time to make quick decisions. 

  • Improve employee productivity. 

How do the components of IT infrastructure work?

The components of IT infrastructure are made up of interconnected pieces like a jigsaw puzzle, and the two core groups of components are hardware and software. Hardware uses software—like an operating  system—to work. And likewise, an operating system manages system resources and hardware. 

Operating systems also make connections between software applications and physical resources using  networking components. 


Hardware components can include: 

  • Desktop computers 

  • Servers 

  • Data centers 

  • Routers 

  • Switches 

  • Facilities 

  • Software 

Software components can include: 

• Content management systems (CMS) 

• Customer relationship management (CRM) 

• Enterprise resource planning (ERP) 

• Operating systems 

• Web servers 


Facilities or physical plants provide space for networking hardware, servers and data centers. It also  includes the network cabling in office buildings to connect components of an IT infrastructure together.


Networks are comprised of core components such as switches, routers, and servers. Switches connect  network devices on local area networks (LAN) like routers, servers and other switches. Routers allow  devices on different LANs to communicate and move packets between networks. 


A core hardware component needed for an enterprise IT infrastructure is a server. Servers are  essentially computers that allow multiple users to access and share resources. 

Server room/data center

Organizations house multiple servers in rooms called server rooms or data centers. Data centers are the  core of most networks. 

Types of infrastructure

The two primary types of IT infrastructure are traditional and cloud infrastructure.

Traditional infrastructure

A traditional IT infrastructure is made up of the usual hardware and software components: facilities,  data centers, servers, networking hardware desktop computers and enterprise application software  solutions. Typically, this infrastructure setup requires more power, physical space and money than other  infrastructure types. A traditional infrastructure is typically installed on-premises for company-only, or  private, use. 

Cloud infrastructure

A cloud computing IT infrastructure is similar to traditional infrastructure. However, end users can  access the infrastructure via the internet, with the ability to use computing resources without installing  on-premises through virtualization. Virtualization connects physical servers maintained by a service  provider at any or many geographical locations. Then, it divides and abstracts resources, like storage, to  make them accessible to users almost anywhere an internet connection can be made. Because cloud  infrastructure is often public, it’s usually referred to as a public cloud.

An optimal IT infrastructure

IT infrastructure setups vary by business needs and goals, but some goals are universal for every  company. The best infrastructure will provide a business high-performance storage, a low-latency  network, security, an optimized wide area network (WAN), virtualization and minimal downtime. 

High-performance storage systems store and back up data and include a data recovery system in case of  disasters. Low-latency networks use enterprise-level infrastructure components to reduce the delay of  data flow. Secure infrastructures include systems that control information access and data availability. It  can also safeguard a business against breaches and cyberattacks wherever the data resides, maintaining  the customers’ trust. WANs manage the network by prioritizing traffic and giving certain applications  more or less bandwidth as needed. Virtualization provides faster server provisioning, increases uptime,  improves disaster recovery and saves energy. Minimal downtime aims to reduce disruptions to business  operations and eliminates system downtime to keep costs down and profits up.